IAADHR

Defence of Human Rights

THE SEALING OF DAGOTE CEMENT OBAJANA ,BY KOGI STATE GOVERNMENT A STEP IN RIGHT DIRECTION

Oct 102022

 


THE SEALING OF DANGOTE CEMENT OBAJANA, By KOGI STATE GOVERNMENT.IS A STEP IN RIGHT DIRECTION,
Our position
We are stakeholders in the Nigeria project and a body of activist who are committed to the development of Nigeria and her citizenry.
The recent altercation between the Kogi State Government and Dangote Cement has opened a chapter into how most companies mishandle public trust in them and fail on their responsibility for revenue remittance and other related purposes. Our rejoinder we believe will touch on all issues related thereto and are as follows.
1. That the action of the Kogi State Government and the invitation of the former Governor to appear before the Kogi State House of Assembly to find out matters relating to ownership and acquisition of the Obajana Cement Factory and revenue, issue’s is a step in the right direction provided it once and for all to remove the capitalist mentality of our so called investors both local and foreign. By their operation That hasn’t in anyways have any effects of impact on the Nigerians citizens and her economy, rather its increased abject poverty that are snuffing life out of ordinary indigenous people of kogi state and Nigerians citizens
2. It is a fact that most States in Nigeria boast of cement businesses and factories but most of them are moribund and inoperative due to acts of sabotage and adverse effect of capitalist approach by the exploiters of our economy.
3. President Olusegun Obasanjo who advanced the policy of liberalization of the economy by selling government companies to investors, particularly local investors only created people who become richer than the States through fraudulent means and policies.
4. that one negative effects of the policies of president Olusegun Obasanjo‘s administration relating to liberalization of the economy was that rather than benefit the vast majority of Nigerians, few oligarchs like Aliko Dangote benefited immensely from the ill fated reform as they took undue advantage of the corrupt system and bought over there corporations using their closeness to the corridor of power and control over the political space and bureaucracy,
5. The prompters of Dangote Cement are capitalists who have evolve a devastating policy that enrich him more and impoverish the populace who in turn become bandit’s herders and kidnappers.

 6. Until people like Alhaji Aliko Dangote are put in their appropriate position as the Kogi State Government is doing by exposing them for who they truly are, we may never truly see the economic emancipation of our country as our founding fathers have envisaged.

Com Bature Johnson T,
For; [ iaadhr] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights,

 

LEADERSHIP WITOUT IDEALS OF DEVELOPMENT THAT PORTRAY SELF ENRICHMENT

Aug 132022

 the press release 

LEADERSHIP WITOUT IDEALS OF DEVELOPMENT THAT PORTRAY SELF ENRICHMENT A PEEP INTO THE ROTATIONAL PRINCIPLE WITH REGARD TO THE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT IN NIGERIA.
The desire to aspire to the position of the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria is usually a tall order given the proliferation of ethnic, social, religious and cultural persuasions in Nigeria.
Thus, over the years the boxy language of the political parties and practitioners have evolve a system albeit unwritten which depict that the office of the President shall rotate between candidates from the Northern part of Nigeria and candidates from the Southern part of Nigeria.
This position have not changed but as observed, in all the elections we have had since 1999, the major political parties have tried to follow this unwritten rule but at the same time, the rule is not sacrosanct as individuals backed by the various political parties from the two divided have thrown their hat into the context often citing the rights guaranteed by the 1999 Constitution which did not provide for rotation.
The foregoing has led us to make the following observations.
1. Given that the incumbent President Muhammedu Buhari is a Northerner who succeeded a Southern President, it is incumbent to ask candidates of Northern extractions presently contesting for president what their political contributions to the Northern region in view of the level of poverty, insecurity and lack of school patronage that affects the region till date.
2. That some of them have been part of government at one time or the other and as such what were their contributions to the development of Northern Nigeria while they were in office.
3. That they should explain to Nigerians the policies they initiated that had impacted positively on the lives of people from Northern Nigeria.
4. That what would they do differently now than they did when they were part of the government that will engender social and economic development of Nigeria.
5. It is pertinent to ensure that Nigerians do not elect into government people who were part of the problems that we now face in the country, mention can be made of unemployment, insecurity, housing, health education infrastructure and perennial indebtedness to international financial institutions.

Thank you.
Comrade Bature Johnson
PRESIDENT [IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights

 

ASIWAJU BOLA AHMED TINUBU AND HIS CHOICE OF SENATOR KASHIM SHETTIMA AS RUNNING MATE

Jul 112022

 

ASIWAJU BOLA AHMED TINUBU AND HIS CHOICE OF SENATOR KASHIM SHETTIMA AS RUNNING MATE
Gentlemen of the Press, I’m comrade Bature Johnson, who doubles as the founder and president of [IAADHR] herein Nigeria,
That we have observed the several reactions to the choice made by Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu of Senator Kashim Shettima as his running mate and wish to state that;
1. The deft political mind Asiwaju Bola Ahmed Tinubu has displayed supports our believe that truly he is a master strategist.
Senator Kashim Shettima we submit is agile, non tribalistic, not a religious bigot, diligent, hard working and as former Governor of Borno State ran an inclusive government and at the end of his tenure brought in Professor, Zullum who is arguably one of the best performing governor presently in Nigeria despite the security challenges he faces.

2. It is a fact that with the background of these two enigmatic personalities as President and Vice President, if elected, their administration will bring a turnaround in our economy, eradicate poverty, reduce unemployment, ensure adequate security of lives and properties of Nigerians and find lasting solution to insurgency, kidnapping and Boko Haram imbroglio ravaging us at the moment.
3. The choice of Senator Kashim Shettima will ensure that the pitfalls that affected President Muhamnadu Buhari's administration will be avoided given his track record and antecedents. We make bold to say that it is the prayers of every citizens that is needed for success so that the myriads of problems facing us as a country will become a things of the past as our country will be in safe hands.
5. A succinct appraisal of Nigeria's politics and evolution concerning the issue of Muslim/Muslim ticket, Christian/Muslim ticket depict that political performance is not about the religious positions of the candidates that guarantees performance in office. In fact the push for a seemingly balance of religion has not provided the needed push for good governance, reduction of poverty, eradication of insurgency and insecurity as represented by the Boko Haram insurgency and recently ISWAP.
What Nigeria deserves is competent hands to steer the ship away from incessant and seemingly un-resolvable problems ravaging us. A team of tested and trusted candidates that have the support of a greater number of our people as having the will to turn around our fortunes is what we need and Senator Bola Ahmed Tinubu and Senator Kashim Shettima who both represent our hope for the future we all dream of meets the requirements and we endorse them accordingly.
Yours faithfully,

Comrade Bature Johnson

President ‘IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights

THE NIGERIAN DEMOCRACY, TRANSITION PROCESS.THE NEED FOR EXPERIENCE RATHER THAN MERE ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS OF THE NEXT PRESIDENT

Jun 272022


027/06/022
THE NIGERIAN DEMOCRACY, TRANSITION PROCESS, SECURITY ISSUES AND THE NEED FOR EXPERIENCE RATHER THAN MERE ACADEMIC QUALIFICATIONS OF THE NEXT PRESIDENT
Gentlemen of the Press, I’m comrade Bature Johnson, who doubles as the founder and president of [IAADHR] herein Nigeria,
We are stakeholders in the Nigerian Project and a body of activists who are committed to the development of Nigeria and her citizenry.
2. That we commend President Muhammadu Buhari in the ways he has pilot the affairs of the country since he was inaugurated and particularly in the mature way he handled the recent party primary of the APC where he did not impose any candidate on the party and allowed the delegates to freely chose the candidate of their choice which led to the emergence of Senator Bola Ahmed Tinubu as the APC Presidential Candidate for the 2023 elections.
3. This will engender a process in which the presidential candidates in Nigeria will be made up of individuals with pedigree and a history of performance. Regard must be given to the Governors under APC for allowing reason to prevail over sentiments in allowing a presidential candidate from the Southern part of Nigeria to emerge. In doing this, they have shown that they are good leaders who put the national interest over and above their personal interests.
4. Let us make it clear that what Nigeria needs today is a leader and a president that has pedigree and the ability to perform and raise the bar.A man who have performed and has enough passion for the development of Nigeria, an individual who can bring foreign investment and encourage and build a Nigeria of our dreams, thereby reducing poverty, crime and insecurity.
5. Nigeria needs an individual whose experience is sufficient for us to move forward not the propaganda that is being bandied around by those who never mean well.

 6. Thus the educational background of such individual once it satisfy constitutional requirements suffices and should not be the standard to measure individual performances particularly those that aspire to the position of President in Nigeria as we have seen that most of the great men and women that have ruled several countries in the world are not with formal education.

Our belief is that of we remove sentiments from our mind and allow reason to prevail, then and only then can we get an individual to ascend the position of the President of Nigeria. Looking at the array of candidates presented by the various political parties, we make bold to assert that Senator Bola Ahmed Tinubu of the APC stand above the rest and is the person that can best take charge of Nigeria and perform creditably well and create a Nigeria of our dreams.
While we diligently support responsive and purposeful leaderships
Thanks
Comrade Bature Johnson, T,
President; [IAADHR] International Association for Advancements and Defense of Human Rights.

 

THE NIGERIA POLITICAL PARTIES AND THEIR LEADERS OF AUTHORITARIAN AND DICTATORSHIP TENDENCIES

Jun 072022

 

 


IA/AD.HR/ 07/06/022
GENTLEMEN OF THE PRESS
I am Comrade Bature Johnson. Who double as the founder/ president of [IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights?
Our position as an organization, of human rights,
The International Association for the Advancement and Defense of Human Rights, (IAADHR) is a nongovernmental organization, working to promote and defend human rights, dignity and self-worth of all irrespective of religion, ethnicity, status or placement in life. Our past and present observations of the polity, advocacy and engagement had gone a long way to help checkmate some serious national issues that would have undermined national security, if we had not been so proactive.
The Nigeria POLITICAL PARTIES and their authoritarian of dictatorship leaders,
1. The Nigerian political parties and their leaderships must not impose and allow authoritarian and dictatorship tendencies into the country's transition system and nascent democracy.
2 If these tendencies are allowed then, in that situation, Nigerians will resist them.
3. We enjoin our political leaders and the parties to conduct their political affairs with decency and prudence so that they don't take us back to the unfortunate memories of the past particularly the events of 1993.
Citizens must be carried along to reduce the increasing incidences of insecurity kidnapping for ransom bandits economics comatose guinea pigs policy’ that are snuffing life out of ordinary Nigerians citizens they should also be allowed a say in choosing their representative of their policy makers
Com Bature Johnson
President; IAADHR, international Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights

 

THE BETRYAL OF WE INDIGENIOUS PEOPLE OF NIGERIANS

Jun 052022


IA/AD/HR/ 05/06/022
THE TRENDING NEWS ON THE BETRAYAL OF INDIGENIOUS PEOPLE OF NIGERIAN
GENTLEMEN OF THE PRESS
I am Comrade Bature Johnson. Who double as the founder/ president of [IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights,
Our position as an organization,
The International Association for the Advancement and Defense of Human Rights, (IAADHR) is a nongovernmental organization, working to promote and defend human rights, dignity and self-worth of all irrespective of religion, ethnicity, status or placement in life. Our past and present observations of the polity, advocacy and engagement had gone a long way to help checkmate some serious national issues that would have undermined national security, if we had not been so proactive.
           * The news going around on the betrayal of Senator Bola Ahmed Tinubu depicts a betrayal of the Nigerian people as represented by                  the indigenous peoples Association,
           * We call on the APC and other political parties to ensure a proper conduct of their primaries in such a way that transparency and                      prudence will be the hallmark of such events, and all contestants must be given equal opportunity to contest the primaries,
           * We urge Senator Bola Ahmed Tinubu must not step down for any candidates under any guess of circumstance, This we believe will                ensure that our democracy is nurtured properly and allowed to grow as is expected,

Citizens must be carried along to reduce the increasing incidences of insecurity, kidnapping for ransom bandits, economics comatose, guinea pigs policy’ that its snuffing life out of ordinary citizens Nigerians, of they should also be allowed a say in choosing their representative of their policy makers,
           *We demand for an equal representative of all Nigerian citizens in democratic governance in Nigeria
           *We demand for all citizens of Nigerian inclusiveness in democratic governance in Nigeria
           *We demand for Nigerian citizen’s participation in our democratic process.
While we diligently support responsive purposeful leadership in democratic transitional governance in Nigeria,
COMRADE BATURE JOHNSON,
PRESIDENT; [IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Rights,

 

PMB NON INTERFRENCE IN APC PRIMARY. WE DEMAND FOR EQUITY.FAIRPLAY TO AVOIED VIOLENCE

May 242022


IA/AD/HR/
2023 APC PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARIES; WE DEMAND EQUITY, FAIRPLAY, AND NON INTERFERENCE.
GENTLEMEN OF THE PRESS
I am Comrade Bature Johnson. Who double as the founder/ president of [IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Right?
Unfolding events in the nation, particularly on the political scene regarding the forthcoming All Progressive Congress party primaries and the implications of its conduct to the security and socio economic situations in Nigeria today,’ prompted our responses and the inputs to ensure the best for the unity, progress and prosperity of our dear nation.
The International Association for the Advancement and Defense of Human Rights, IAADHR, Is a nongovernmental organization, working to promote and defend human rights, dignity and self-worth of all, irrespective of religion, ethnicity, status or placement in life. Our past and present observations of the polity, advocacy and engagement had gone a long way to help checkmate some serious national issues that would have undermined national security, if we had not been so proactive.
These vocation and call to national duty once again prompted our present response to the unfolding political situation in the country. In few days to come, the ruling party, the All Progressive Congress will conduct their presidential primaries in Abuja; this exercise will lead to the emergence of the presidential flag bearer of the party. Consequently, many presidential aspirants are vigorously jostling for the coveted presidential candidacy of the party.
Much as we are not perturbed by the numerous numbers of the aspirants, we are deeply concerned about the transparency of the entire process and the increasing tendencies for some elements to manipulate and undermine the whole exercise in a brazen manipulation to foist their candidates against the spirit of equity, fairly play fairness and democratic choices and preferences.
The recent national convention of the ruling party and the adoption of a consensus candidate against the aspiration, due preparation and contest of many well qualified party candidates, was a clear pointer to this sad and worrisome fact. Unfolding political scenario is again pointing towards the repetition of this antidemocratic and non- truly representative process.
OUR OBSERVATIONS
From the body language of President Muhammadu Buhari, there is an increasing tendency for him to want to adopt the previous strategy of adopting his preferred candidate at the last minutes towards the party primaries,
Whereby other capitulating contestant would be persuaded to step down and fall in place to support the anointed candidate. Also we saw increased political agitation by some presidential aspirants in an attempt to undermine a credible political process, realizing their low chances of clinching the presidential slot of the party; this ought not to be so. We also observe a political acquiescence by delegates to be railroad to go against their will in their intended political preferences, this remain the bane of our political underdevelopment. We observe the regrettable ways in which ministers manipulated the presidency after they had resigned their appointment only to return back without any sanction from Mr President
This is the greatest disdain and disrespect that can be done to the office of Mr President and the people of the country, whom they had taken for rides for so long.
THE IMPLICATIONS
The implication for such an anti-people and antidemocratic process will be far reaching, not only on the party delegates that are representative of the people’s choice, but on every aspect of our national life, as the preferred candidates’ allegiance will be to the benefactor and not the entire nation and our national interests.
Today, the nation is battling different types of challenges such as banditry, Boko Haram Insurgency, poverty, kidnapping economics comatose, guinea pigs policies; that are snuffing life out of ordinary Nigeria citizens ,
The truth of the matter is that many of them emanated from our culture of gross impunity, legal somersault, injustice, inequity, bad governance and judicial emasculation and corruption. To refuse to address these is to continue to heighten the challenges that the nation is passing through today.
WHY WE CANNOT AFFORD SUCH AT A VERY TRYING MOMENT FOR OUR DEAR NATION
The present sad state of the nation calls for a tough measures to address it and make life more meaningful to the entire citizen. It calls for a deep and divine introspection on the side of President Muhammadu Buhari to rise above any primordial considerations and work to transparently ensure robust, credible and acceptable party conventions, leading to the emergence of a widely acceptable candidate in few days to come. Citizens must be carried along to reduce the increasing incidences of voters apathy; they should also be allowed a say in choosing who will be the presidential aspirants in a party primaries, this will go a long way to promotes accountability, make votes counts, deepen our democratic practices, reduce the incidence of money politics, God fatherism and give all citizens a sense of belonging and ownership of the whole political process.
OUR CAUTION
The presidency of Nigeria is not exclusively preserved for any tribe or religion, or the assumption of the exalted position of the president of Nigeria the heritage of any person or interest groups.
To stick to and obstinately refuse the devolution and rotation of political power is to continue to enhance all the factors that enlarge our faulty line as a nation’ and further heightens the myriads of challenges and the centripetal and centrifugal tendencies that had in the past decades and present, continues to undermine us as a nation, driving us to a point of precipice. Every aspirant must thus work hard to secure a deserved placements or slots in the forthcoming primaries. Our national politics must be steered away from religious and ethnic influences so as to get the best for the nation.
The fact is no part of the country that is not marginalized in one way or the other, yet we must give credence to those who can deliver and not who can rise to the top through the manipulation of our fault lines. If not, the Hausa will also lay more claims to the presidency for they have not had it again since 1976 after the death of Late Murtala Mohammed. The North east will lay claim to it that they have not had it at all, while the North central will lay claim to the fact that the region has it in military dispensation.
OUR CALL
We call on President Muhammadu Buhari to allow for a free, fair, credible, and transparent presidential primaries of the party, which will lead to the emergence of preferred, acceptable, respected, and patriotic candidates, That majority of the party members will be proud of and may eventually command the preference and choice of tens of millions of Nigerians, if such a candidates is eventually presented to all Nigerians in the forthcoming presidential elections.
We call on President Muhammadu Buhari in the name of the unity of our nation and sake of posterity, not to display a preference or choose any candidate, but instead allow each of them to fight for the slot through transparent presidential primaries.To let everybody fight for the ticket, using their track record of service, their inputs to national development and every positive good will. They have generated across the nation over the years.
We call on Mr President to without delay sanction Ministers that returned back to office after their public resignation. We call on all party delegates to be patriotic and fair enough to enthrone a new era in our nation's history, through a right and patriotic choices. We call on all Nigerians to increase their participation in the political process, to strive to hold their elected representatives accountable and strive to mitigate or eliminate all policies and factors that promote electoral apathy and violence.
COMRADE BATURE JOHNSON
PRESIDENT; [IAADHR] International Association for Advancement and Defense of Human Right,

RESTRUCTURING NIGERIA IMPERATIVE OF IMPLEMENTING STRATIGIES

Aug 192021

PREFACE
One of the greatest challenges facing Nigeria today is the scourge of insecurity and its consequent instability and underdevelopment. It is so enormous that it affects all sectors of her economy and all efforts to develop the nation. The earlier this is addressed the better for the nation.
For over six decades after her independence, Nigeria as a nation has been making steady progress in terms of growth and development. In some few cases, it recorded a giant stride that makes her a point of reference in the global community.
Today, most progress so far made has been reversed by the scourge of insecurity and further complicated by the issues of corruption, bad governance, non-inclusion in governance, poverty, ethno-religious conflicts and lack luster leaders at all levels of her national life.
Today, most of the indices of development which has been use to measure progress in Nigeria show a negative slope of growth. This is sadly not a good omen for our country, and a fear that the country may fail in the nearest future.
A failed Nigeria will not only be disastrous for most of the African countries and the rest of the world, consequently all efforts must be put in place to arrest the situation in the country.
We must thus be very responsive enough in identifying and promptly addressing all related factors that is speeding Nigeria to a failed state.
We must address the roots of insecurity and all other challenges facing the nation. We must strongly put up a robust response to identify and nip in buds all causative factors of insurgency. We must critically analyze and reviewed the consequences of the terror groups on Nigeria, and evolve lasting solutions to address all these challenges, only then can we ever attempt to truly begin our journey to a genuine nationhood. We must all work and partner together to rebuild Nigeria and make it prosperous in the process. We must engage all sectors of the nation in building a truly great and resilient Nigeria and Nigerians.
Boko Haram is a Nigeria’s militant Islamist fighting to overthrow the government and consequently create an Islamic state. The group was established in 2002 by one Muhammed Yusuf, as a Sunni Islamist sect opposed to western education and keen on foisting Islamic authority on the people, especially Northern Nigeria.
Since its establishment and his campaigns, the Boko Haram group has caused series of massive havoc in Africa’s most populous countries, through campaigns of bombings and attacks, since 2009.
The Boko Haram insurgency has no doubt posed the greatest challenges to the peace, unity, and stability of the nation since its foundation, the earlier this is addressed the better for the nation and her development.
There are several causes of Boko Haram insurgency, some of which include
Some of the causes or triggers of Boko Haram are as follows.
Poverty, unemployment, wealth and economic inequality, high cost of governance, budget delay and manipulations, population explosion, massive national debt, corruption, illiteracy, the mismanagement of the almajiri system, ineffective security and defense architecture.
The earlier these challenges are addressed the better for our nation.

The high cost of governance as relates to the maintenance of the public officers, has gulped billions of dollars of the tax-payers money, and remains the source of wastages of the money that could have been used to develop infrastructures or better the lives of the ordinary citizens.
Uncontrolled population and its consequent inability of government to effectively distribute and track projects to the people remain one of the factors that create vulnerable member of the society.
Corruption is an anti‐social attitude awarding improper privileges contrary to legal and moral norms and impairs the authorities’ capacity to secure the welfare of all citizens. Corruption is a constant phenomenon in Nigeria.
In 2012, Nigeria was estimated to have lost over $400 billion to corruption since the independence. In 2018, the country ranked 144th in the 180 countries listed in Transparency International's Corruption Index (with Somalia, at 180th, being the most corrupt, and Denmark the least).
Nigeria as a country has extremely porous borders, yet successive governments have done little or nothing to address it.

 Porous borders have aided illegal arms proliferation, especially through the northern borders, where criminals from different parts of the world stroll into the country, contributing immeasurably to the frightening level of insecurity Nigeria is grappling with today.

The loosely guarded borders also explain why illegal arms proliferation has continued despite the frequent exercise of mopping them up. Extreme political and religious ideology has been responsible for the incidences of Boko Haram evolution as well as other forms of terrorism.
The proliferation of security agencies in the country is a threat to national security. Creating more security agencies could breed rivalry and fragmentation of resources meant for the existing ones.

Today, one of the factors that have led to the increase in the spate of insecurity is the lack of failure of effective intelligence gathering strategies in Nigeria. The earlier this is remedied the better for the nation.
The broken down of values in the society has resulted in the increased cases of cultism, robbery, corruption, violence, and intolerance.
Illiteracy continues to be a significant problem in Nigeria today. According to the 2008 Global Monitoring Report, the most recent data for Nigeria shows an adult literacy rate of 69 % (78 % for men and 60 % for women). More than 22 million people are illiterate, 65 % of who are women.

The high rate of illiteracy partly accounts for the low level of development in Nigeria because the growth and development of any nation depend largely on the quantity and quality of all segments of its population. Illiteracy fuels conflicts as it despises all the needed platforms for dialogue and reasoning.

Almajiri commonly referred to derives from the Arabic word Al-Mahaajirun, which literally means a learned scholar who propagates the peaceful message of Islam.

Regrettably, the Almajiri culture which has since outlived its purpose has become a breeding ground for child begging and in the extreme cases, potential materials for recruitment into terrorist groups.
Bad leadership and poor governance remain the core cause of Boko Haram and the leadership failure the motivation for the insurgency.
Leadership ought to lead the people well, marshaling both human and natural resources, for the betterment of most of the people
Traditional ruler plays critical roles in the society. In the past they were responsible for helping to uphold and sustain the values and cultures of the people. The absence of clearly defined roles in the constitution makes traditional rulers vulnerable to the abuse of power, victims of blackmail and pawns and punching bags in the political chess game of their respective states.
One of the main causes of Boko Haram insurgency is the ineffective security and defense architectures in the country today. Nigeria’s security architecture is outdated and ineffective is not a doubt, in view of the inability to contain numerous security threats that affects the nation.
The consequences of the Boko Haram are multifaceted and affected Nigeria and Nigerians in so many ways. It has led to death of many people, destructions of properties worth billions of dollars and displacement of many people from the original place of residence. It has destroyed many families and institutions across the country.
Boko Haram has committed serious acts of violence. It has killed an estimated 37,000 and displaced over 4.2 million in the wider Lake Chad region. The psychological impacts of the abductions and kidnapping, has a negative effect on our drive for productivity and national development.
Boko Haram has killed an estimated 2,295 teachers, and over 19,000 teachers have been displaced by the conflict. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates that more than 1,400 schools have been destroyed, damaged, or looted primarily in the northeast, and more than 600,000 children have lost access to education. In addition to the abuses committed against female students and teachers as an immediate result of an attack on schools and/or while held in captivity, the suffering and impact does not end once they are rescued or escape.
Attacks on education create a ripple effect, setting in motion a range of negative impacts such as loss of education, early marriage, early pregnancy, and stigma associated with sexual violence and children born from rape, all of which can dramatically affect female students’ futures.
These harms often exacerbate and are exacerbated by pre-existing forms of gender discrimination and harmful practices that negatively affect girls and women.
Government needs to put in place a policy and programmed that will genuinely address poverty and underdevelopment. It must constantly review and update all these policy and programmed to meet up with global best practices and be very impactful. Government needs to create more jobs, by establishing new industries or reviving moribund ones.
Government must strive to reduce or redress the high cost of governance in Nigeria which has become a very disturbing phenomenon of late. It must trim the bogus allowances and salaries of our public office holders and plug all loopholes that aided the leaking or wastages of public fund.
Uncontrolled population explosions have the tendency to lead to a fragile state because of unemployment and scarce resources. Government needs to partner with stakeholders to ensure their participation as regards the need for family planning, child spacing and resource managements.
Corruption is killing Nigeria and her economy. Government needs to boost its anticorruption campaigns and enforce stricter regulations such as death penalty for those found liable.
The security at Nigerian borders must be tighten up, couple with the deployment of satellite tracking technology to monitor, track and apprehend smugglers of goods and arms.
Government must work with all relevant stakeholders to regulate the importation of radical foreign ideology or indoctrinations to the country. The Nigerian intelligence community should be more proactive in these aspects.
The law enforcement agents and agencies must be empowered and well trained to meet up in containing the unfolding security challenges in the nation as well as repositioning to tackle terrorism and Boko Haram insurgency. The number of security agencies available should be kept at minimal level yet highly motivated and structures to seamlessly work together and to efficiently fit into the overall security architecture of the nation, to achieve stability and security.
Federal government must train and empower the intelligence community, to enable them to perform maximally and to boost their intelligence gathering initiatives across the country. Government needs to put in place policies and laws that will help to strengthen family values and bonding, without compromising the morality of the nation. Government needs to address all manifestation of social injustices and impunity in the state. With these done, it will go a long way to starve off all forms of discontents that led to ethnic nationalism and branded agitation and militancy.
Government needs to place priority on the development of education and national manpower, even as its reform and modernized the Almajirai systems. Government needs to build more educational institutions to empower the people with much needed skills and increased budgetary allocations to education as a way of boosting the sector.
The place of credible leadership in addressing the myriads of challenges facing the nation cannot be over emphasized. Government must ensure the emergence of a credible and trustworthy leadership instead of greedy and selfish leaders. Here in lies the need to put in place and sustain a robust electoral system that will transparently promotes the emergence of leadership that reflect the choice of the people.
Government must ensure that there is a constitutional role for the traditional rulers so as to enable them to perform optimally and assist in development of the nation.
The royal fathers play critical roles in the promotion of peace and unity and the security of their domain, hence the imperatives of their engagements.
With these strategies in place, the challenges of insecurity will be reduced to the barest minimum and the people will experience renewed vigor and better welfare as the nation witnessed growth and development.

 

1.0-INTRODUCTION
One of the greatest scourges to have infected Nigeria is the scourge of insecurity and its consequent instability and underdevelopment. Since the time of amalgamation till the present day, no single events have shaken Nigeria to her very foundation and threaten our collective existence as the issues of insecurity and insurgency.
If we must continue to progress and develop as a nation, we must be proactive enough to address these big threats. If we as a people must ever be taken seriously as with other members of the respected global citizens, we must realize that no security is as assured as our collective security.
For over six decades after her independence, Nigeria as a nation has been making steady progress in terms of growth and development. In some few cases, it recorded a giant stride that makes her a point of reference in the global community.
Today, and sadly so, the gains of the past years have been brutally reversed by the scourge of insecurity and further complicated by the issues of corruption, bad governance, non-inclusion in governance ,poverty multiple taxation, ethno-religious conflicts and lack luster leaders at all levels of her national life.
Today, all indices of development concerning Nigeria, has not given hope for rejoice, rather, these indices are pointing to the worrisome facts that Nigeria is on the verge of becoming a failed state. This realization should ginger all stakeholders to be proactive enough to evolve far-reaching, forward-looking strategies and reforms that will restore Nigeria and her lost glory.
A failed Nigeria will not only be disastrous for most of the African countries, that will witness a massive spillover of millions of displaced Nigerians but will catalyze an unimaginable misery and disrupt the global workforce supplies and Diaspora remittance and other engagements.
We must thus be very responsive enough in identifying and promptly addressing all related factors that is speeding Nigeria to a failed state.
We must address the roots of insecurity and Boko Haram insurgency across Africa. The Boko Haram insurgency has indeed metamorphosed to a Frankenstein monster that threatens to consume our nation.
The increasing lethality of its operations against both Muslims and Christians has been a source of concerns. The unrestrained spread of insurgence across Africa is a cause for concerns.
The damages of property worth billions of dollars and killing of innocent and in most cases defenseless Nigerians has been the topmost concerns of all security agents or agencies across the nation.
We must strongly put up a robust response to identify and nip in the buds all causative factors of insurgency. We must critically analyze and review the consequences of the terror groups on Nigeria, and evolve lasting solutions to address all these challenges, only then can we ever attempt to truly begin our journey to a genuine nationhood.
We must all work and partner together to rebuild Nigeria and make it prosperous in the process. We must engage all sectors of the nation in building a truly great and resilient Nigeria and Nigerians.
1.1-HISTORY OF BOKO HARAM
Boko Haram is a Nigeria’s militant Islamist group, fighting to overthrow the government and consequently create an Islamic state. The group was established in 2002 by one sheik, Muhammad Yusuf, as a Sunni Islamist sect opposed to western education and keen on foisting Islamic authority on the people, especially Northern Nigeria.
Since its establishment and its campaigns, the Boko Haram group has caused series of massive havoc in Africa’s most populous country, through campaigns of bombings and attacks, since 2009, including the 2011 bombing of the United Nations Building in Abuja.
Although it has strong ties to other African terrorist groups, it has few jihadist ambitions beyond Nigeria.
1.2-CAUSES OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA
The Boko haram insurgency has no doubt posed the greatest challenge to the peace, unity, and stability of the nation since its foundation, the earlier this is addressed the better for the nation and her development.
To be able to address a problem, one must know its causes or roots.The same with the present ravaging Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria and of late, some other neighboring African countries.
There are several causes of Boko Haram insurgency, it is not limited to only a cause, thus we must identify, detailed and document all these causes for our articulations that will give us a clear appreciation of the problems at hand.
Some of the causes or triggers of Boko Haram are as follows.
POVERTY
Poverty is a state or condition in which a person or community lacks the financial resources and essentials for a minimum standard of living. Poverty means that the income level from employment is so low that basic human needs can't be met. Poverty-stricken people and families might go without proper housing, clean water, healthy food, and medical attention.
Poverty is one of the economic factors that caused the Boko Haram Insurgency. Other factors include wealth-inequality, unemployment, joblessness, deindustrialization, and economic downturn in the nation. When people are deprived of certain resources and opportunities, poverty can create resentment and cause some individuals to turn to terrorism or Boko Haram in order to express their outrage against the state.
Although some past research concludes that there is no connection between poverty and terrorism or Boko Haram Insurgency, the correlation between the two only exists where significant variables such as ethnic and religious differences and political freedom were excluded.
However, poverty can still have an important, if indirect, role in contributing to an individual or group's predisposition to participate in terrorism and Boko Haram Insurgency. One of the most apparent ways in which Boko Haram can capitalize on poverty is by exploiting the lack of social safety net that characterizes impoverished countries.
UNEMPLOYMENT
Unemployment is the state of being without any work yet looking for work. Unemployment in Nigeria, Africa’s largest economy surged to the second highest on a global list of countries monitored by Bloomberg in 2019.

The jobless rate in Nigeria rose to 33.3% in the three months through December 2019, according to a report published by National Bureau of Statistics. That’s up from 27.1% in the second quarter of 2020, the last period for which the agency released labor-force statistics.

The number of people looking for jobs will keep rising as population growth continues to outpace output expansion.
Nigeria is expected to be the world’s third most-populous country by 2050, with over 300 million people, according to the United Nations.

Unemployment leads to slack hands for many people who desire to work but have none; hence in some cases they may resort to crime and criminality.
It is a fact that unemployment is the key driver of many youth who joined Boko Haram insurgency, and these must continue to be a source of concern to every stakeholder in Nigeria.

WEALTH AND ECONOMIC INEQUALITY

Income inequality is often accompanied by wealth inequality, which is the uneven distribution of wealth Distribution of wealth and incomes the way in which the wealth and income of a nation are divided among its population, or the way in which the wealth and income of the world are divided among nations. Such patterns of distribution are designed and studied by various statistical means, all of which are based on data of varying degrees of reliability.
There is high economic inequality amongst Nigerians to the extent that it is motivating resentment from the poor against the rich in the society.

Nigeria has an expanding economy with abundant human capital and the economic potential to lift millions out of poverty. Economic inequality in Nigeria has reached extreme levels, despite being the largest economy in Africa. The combined wealth of Nigeria’s five richest men - $29.9 billion - could end extreme poverty at a national level yet 5 million face hungers.

More than 112 million people are living in poverty in Nigeria, yet the country’s richest man would have to spend $1 million a day for 42 years to exhaust his fortune.
Inequality in wealth and income distribution rarely leads to conflicts and of the cause of Boko Haram Insurgency, rather, Boko Haram insurgency or any form of conflict is three times more likely to break out where inequalities between different ethnic, religious, or regional groups are high than where they are average.
HIGH COST OF GOVERNANCE
The high cost of governance in Nigeria which has become a very disturbing phenomenon and has been widely acknowledged by many both within and outside the corridors of power as one of the points of unnecessary wastages of the nation’s resources and the increasing call to cut the cost of governance at this time.

The high cost of governance as relates to the maintenance of the public officers, has gulped billions of dollars of the tax-payers money, and remains the source of wastages of the money that could have been used to develop infrastructures or better the lives of the ordinary citizens and reduce the abject poverty that are snuffing life ordinary Nigerians,

The suffocating impact of the high cost of governance on our national life has made it to assume a national emergency dimension. With this high cost of maintaining the bureaucracy, the economic fortunes of the country has recently been pronounced as uncertain with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) downgrading the growth prospects of the economy for 2018 and 2019.
In addition, the minister of finance recently cried out that insufficient revenue has been the major problem in the effective implementations of the federal budgets.
Despite this hue and cry about revenue shortfall, not much has been seen to be done by the authorities to address this unsustainable level of the cost of governance, which invariably has not reduced despite these clearly identified revenue challenges. Thus, something drastic needs to be done in this regard to arrest this undesirable trend.
In this regard, Nigeria needs to borrow a leaf from many developed and developing countries that are making frantic efforts at reducing the cost of governance so as to conserve funds for infrastructural development that would impact positively on the lives of the citizens.
For instance, India introduced e-governance in administration in order to reduce the cost of running its government. Other countries such as Ethiopia, Thailand, Kenya, Ghana, Rwanda, have further resorted to reduction in the number of political appointees involved in the act of administration in their country. This has become imperative for Nigeria too.
BUDGET DELAY AND MANIPULATIONS
A budget is a preparation of an estimate of government expenditures and revenues for a specific financial year.
It is a key tool of economic planning and fiscal policy and for the government to control the direction of the economy and attain greater efficiency.

In Nigeria, according to tradition and for ease of implementations, the public budgeting and implementations is supposed to start on January 1 and end on December 31. This means that a budget proposal should have been approved by the National Assembly and accented to by the President before the beginning of a New Year.

Sadly, this has not been so; our budget has been manipulated and unnecessarily delayed, leading to un-desirous effects or adverse implications on the Nigerian economy.

A delayed or manipulated budget has dire consequences on the economy of the country as it’s among other effects, promotes corruption, stifles the economic growth, brings about uncertainty in the government fiscal policy direction and affects capital expenditure such as infrastructural development.

MASSIVE NATIONAL DEBT

One of the factors that cause Boko Haram insurgency is the mounting national debt in Nigeria. The growing public debt in Nigeria, which stood at USD 87.29 Billion, has been a source of concerns to all stakeholders in the country.
In essence, the nation’s debt is about where it was in 2005-06, just before Nigeria benefited from massive debt relief as part of a program coordinated by the Paris Club, IMF, World Bank and the African Development Bank.
To have squandered the debt reduction in just fourteen years and have no tangible economic progress to show for it is beyond disappointing. Public debts of the country have resulted in the inability of government to effectively respond to the yearning of the people, as regards the provision of infrastructure and establishment of industries, which could have created jobs for the unemployed citizens.The higher the debt, the more the numbers of people that would not have access to development or government palliatives.
POPULATION EXPLOSION
Uncontrolled population and its consequent inability of government to effectively distribute and track projects to the people remain one of the factors that create vulnerable members of the society.
Nigeria has the largest population in Africa, and it is growing at 3.2% a year. The U.S. Census Bureau says that at that rate, there will be an estimated 402 million people in Nigeria in 2050.
The major triggers for population increase include early marriages, high birth rates, religious doctrine, cultural values and lack of family planning access. Uncontrolled population explosions have the tendency to lead to a fragile state because of unemployment and scarce resources.
CORRUPTION
Corruption is an anti‐social attitude awarding improper privileges contrary to legal and moral norms and impairs the authorities’ capacity to secure the welfare of all citizens. Corruption is a constant phenomenon in Nigeria.
In 2012, Nigeria was estimated to have lost over $400 billion to corruption since the independence. In 2018, the country ranked 144th in the 180 countries listed in Transparency International's Corruption Index (with Somalia, at 180th, being the most corrupt, and Denmark the least).
Corruption remains a priority concern to the Nigerian Government and People. Corruption affects all aspects of public life, continues to undermine the social, economic, and political development of the country and is a major obstacle to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Corruption in governance and democratic space resulted in electoral manipulations, thuggery, vandalism, and cultism.
UNREGULATED MIGRATIONS

The term unregulated population migration has been adopted from the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to mean movement of people that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit, and receiving countries.

Drivers of unregulated population migration include nontraditional security challenges such as changing environmental and climatic conditions, disaster management, food and water scarcity, and pandemics.

Other drivers include manmade stresses such as civil conflict and fragile and unstable governments, growing interest from external actors, and organized crime. When several factors converge, they act as a multiplier causing instability among nation states as affected populations seek other sources of food, resources, stability, or safety. Unregulated population migration in the context of an interrelated system can lead to instability in the country as many terrorists are allowed free movements within and outside Nigeria.
POROUS BORDERS

Nigeria as a country has extremely porous borders, yet successive governments have done little or nothing to address it

Porous borders have aided illegal arms proliferation, especially through the northern borders, where criminals from different parts of the world stroll into the country, contributing immeasurably to the frightening level of insecurity Nigeria is grappling with today.
The President, Major General Muhammadu Buhari (retd.), has repeatedly, since the inception of his regime in 2015, blamed the festering insecurity in the country on the influx of illegal arms from Libya and close associates of the country’s former leader, Muammar Gaddafi, who was killed since 2011. In 2018, for example, Buhari said on April 11, during a meeting with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Webby, in London that gunmen trained and armed by Gaddafi did not only escape with their arms to countries like Nigeria after he was killed, but they also infiltrated the herders.
Interestingly, Libya does not even share a border with Nigeria, but it borders two countries – Chad to the South and Niger Republic to the South-West, both of which share an enormous land border with Nigeria.
While the northern part of Nigeria borders Niger Republic by about 1,497km; the North-East borders Chad by about 87km; the eastern part borders Cameroon by about 1,600km, and the western part borders the Republic of Benin by about 773km.
The then Comptroller-General of the Nigeria Immigration Service, Mr David Parradang, revealed the number of illegal routes in 2014, adding that Nigeria had only 84 approved land border control posts.
`Across the over 4,000 square kilometers coverage, we have many illegal routes which are not manned.
As a result of this, many people have been killed, kidnapped, and displaced, while some are simply nowhere to be found. Most Nigerian citizens live in fear, except a few who could afford heavy protection.
The loosely guarded borders also explain why illegal arms proliferation has continued despite the frequent exercise of mopping them up.
BOUNDARY DISPUTES
A boundary dispute is a dispute that arises between owners or occupiers of neighboring community or states.
Inter- state boundary clashes are part of the raging insecurity challenges in Nigeria that have been recurring between states such as Abia and AkwaIbom; and Cross River and Ebonyi, leading to loss of many lives.
Boundary disputes promote easy access to arms and ammunitions that help to further fuel other forms of insecurity. It also leads to the hiring and retaining of mercenary, who had helped the concerned community to procure war in the past.
EXTREME POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS IDEALOGY
Extreme political and religious ideology has been responsible for the incidences of Boko Haram evolution as well as other forms of terrorism. Most of those involve in the motivation of Boko Haram insurgency got the Salafist ideology from some foreign Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia and propagate it in Nigeria.
FEUDALISM

One of the key causes of Boko Haram insurgency is the feudalistic and oligarchic disposition of the supposed Nigerian leaders to the led. The feudal lords, who toady has transformed to a parasitic elite has been in the forefront evolving policies and programs that kept the poor poorer and the rich richer.

The elite would rather evolve policies that will make the less privilege in the society, lacks access to education and necessities of life, so he can be manipulated for the parochial interests. No wonder the failure to reform and address that intractable Almajirai problem, as the armies of poor homeless youths are good only for winning election.
The major inducements for governors who have for long lived in denial are the social challenges associated with continued ‘perpetuation of poverty, illiteracy, insecurity and social disorder in all the northern states.
LACK OF MOTIVATION OF THE SECURITY AGENTS AND AGENCIES

The security agents may not have been responsible for the evolution of the Boko Haram, but the way and manner it handles the killing of Mohammed Yusuf is the cause of the Boko Haram till date. A security agent that promotes extra judicial killings or impunity and brigandage is bound to get an equal measure.

A vulnerable Law Enforcement Agencies and agents cannot be efficient in helping to address insecurity or the Boko Haram insurgency. The worrisome spate of insecurity across the nation, most especially, kidnapping is a manifestation of the level or degree of neglects which the law enforcement agents and agencies has suffered neglects from government.

PROLIFERATION OF SECURITY AGENCIES
The proliferation of security agencies in the country is a threat to national security. Creating more security agencies could breed rivalry and fragmentation of resources meant for the existing ones.

The Federal Government should put in more energy towards strengthening the Nigeria Police Force, rather than creating more security outfits. The police force was the principal security agency in the country and needed to be strengthened to effectively carry out its statutory responsibilities.
The issue of sharing intelligence information is not mandatory; it is discretionary. If there is a law that makes it mandatory, there wouldn’t be conflicts among the security agencies. When there is proliferation of security agencies, the criminals might explore and exploits the weaknesses of inter security engagements to engage in crime and criminality.
LACK OF EFFECTIVE INTELLIGENCE GATHERING STRATEGIES
An intelligence collection plan (ICP) is the systematic process used by most modern armed forces and intelligence services to meet intelligence requirements through the tasking of all available resources to gather and provide pertinent information within a required time limit.

Collecting intelligence to build up a detailed knowledge of threats to the country is at the heart of Nigeria’s security agencies. The assessment and investigation process helps them to make decisions about how to respond to these threats and what protective measures to take.
It then anticipates some problems the ICP is likely to encounter—problems ranging from technical interoperability, secrecy and security, and cultural obstacles—and proposes solutions before making recommendations for how the ICP can leverage business analytics to improve its value and performance in achieving Nigeria.
Today, one of the factors that have led to the increase in the spate of insecurity is the lack of failure of effective intelligence gathering strategies in Nigeria. The earlier this is remedied the better for the nation.
WEAK FAMILY STRUCTURE
Family stability, defined as the consistency of family activities and routines. The family performs several essential functions for society. It socializes children, it provides emotional and practical support for its members, it helps regulate sexual activity and sexual reproduction, and it provides its members with a social identity.
Families, believe it or not, are the strongest building blocks in any community. If families are proactive and stable, communities would be just as proactive and stable in return.
A dysfunctional family is a family in which conflict, misbehavior, and often child neglect or abuse on the part of individual parents occurs continuously and regularly, leading other members to accommodate such actions.
The impacts of westernization and globalization has made the world a global village and thus imported bad or contrary values that is violent-prone.

 CRUMBLING NATIONAL VALUES

Value can be said to be principles and ideas we hold and cherish as important and worthwhile, and which have positive effects. Values are important part of our lives because they influence and determine what we believe, hold to and stand for Understanding and recognizing our societal values helps us to resist the pressure to conform to other people’s values that are not acceptable.
There are various levels of manifestation of values in the individual, community, and society. The manifestations of values are seen in our lives, actions, conduct or character. The broken down of values in the society has resulted in the increased cases of cultism, robbery, corruption, violence, and intolerance.
ELITE CONSPIRACY
Elites are groups of persons who by virtue of position or education exercise much power or influence.
In Nigeria, elites are highly educated Nigerian government appointees or external critics that are good with problem analysis but often detached from reality and the Nigerian masses.
They are, through their manipulations, have been responsible for many challenges facing the nation, including ethno religious riots. Their manipulation as well as their intra-fighting’s to protect their greed and selfish interest foisted Boko Haram on the nation today.
NATIONAL FAULTY FOUNDATION
The founding fathers of this nation built a strong foundation for greatness and prosperity, sadly such vision was compromised on the altar of nepotism and sectionalism.
The introduction of the unitary system of government and the subsequent political manipulation of elections and the structures of the country was part of the faulty foundation that has made true development elude the nation.
It continues to promote exclusion, social injustice and ethnic nationalism that has manifested in ethnic agitations we are witnessing today.

The faulty foundation only makes many Nigerians swore allegiance to foreign countries with similar religious or political ideology instead of a faith in one indivisible Nigeria.
INDIGENE-SETTLER SYNDROME
The term settler referred to migrants who moved to areas outside their original homes and settled for the purpose of engaging in farming to improve their economic needs. Indigene refers to the original inhabitants of areas of economic exploitation.
These issues remain on the drivers of conflicts and motivations for the evolution and growth of Boko Haram insurgency, as the thrust of indigene-settler sub consciousness is influenced by religious intents and self-preservation
ILLITERACY
Illiteracy continues to be a significant problem in Nigeria today. According to the 2008 Global Monitoring Report, the most recent data for Nigeria shows an adult literacy rate of 69 % (78 % for men and 60 % for women). More than 22 million people are illiterate, 65 % of who are women.
The high rate of illiteracy partly accounts for the low level of development in Nigeria because the growth and development of any nation depend largely on the quantity and quality of all segments of its population. Illiteracy fuels conflicts as it despises all the needed platforms for dialogue and reasoning.
THE MISMANAGEMENT OF THE ALMAJIRI SYSTEM
Almajiri commonly referred to is derived from the Arabic word Al-Mahaajirun, which literally means a learned scholar who propagates the peaceful message of Islam.
Regrettably, the Almajiri culture which has since outlived its purpose has become a breeding ground for child begging and in the extreme cases, potential materials for recruitment into terrorist groups.
The pupils who were meant to be trained to become Islamic scholars have now had to struggle to cater for themselves, begging rather than learning under the watch and supervision of some semi-literate Quranic teachers or Mallams who themselves lacked the requisite financial and moral support. Hence, the system runs more as a means of survival rather than a way of life.
POOR LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE

Bad leadership and poor governance remain the core cause of Boko Haram and the leadership failure is the motivation for the insurgency. Leadership ought to lead the people well, marshaling both human and natural resources, for the betterment of most of the people.
Sadly, the leadership failures have the biggest impacts of poor governance and continue to undermine the much-needed development. Thus, the permanent state of need, poverty and not being able to bring about the required change in a country.
It keeps a country in a constant “developing” state, meaning that there is no job creation, improvement of the education system and a continuous state of poverty.
LACK OF ROLES FOR TRADITIONAL RULERS
Traditional ruler plays critical roles in the society. In the past they were responsible for helping to uphold and sustain the values and cultures of the people.
At a point in the history of the nation, they had defined constitutional roles, sadly today; it is a different kettle of fish.
They have become a mere observer and limited in their ability to promote peace, unity, and security.
The absence of clearly defined roles in the constitution makes traditional rulers vulnerable to the abuse of power, victims of blackmail and pawns and punching bags in the political chess game of their respective states.
Without constitutional protection, traditional rulers will continue to be forced by their governors to behave like party executives or political appointees or be dethroned.
CLOSE DOWN OF VIBRANT INDUSTRIES
Economy of a country is sustained by vibrant industrialization policies and strategies. Nigeria was making effort to be truly industrialized until policies and foreign collusions that came and stifles such efforts.
Nigeria had one of the best textile industries in the world with more than 180 functional factories in the early 1980s. The country then was vibrant, and it used to be the second largest in Africa, after Egypt, providing more than 800,000 direct and five million indirect jobs for Nigerians.
Sadly, most of the industries have been closed or functioning at minimal capacity. Statistics also revealed that the nine textile mills in Kaduna were closed down by the end of 2007and their workers were thrown into the labor market.
INEFFECTIVE SECURITY AND DEFENCE ARCHTECTURE
One of the main causes of Boko Haram insurgency is the ineffective security and defense architectures in the country today. To say Nigeria’s security architecture is outdated and ineffective, is not a doubt, in view of the inability to contain numerous security threats that affects the nation.
Federal Government needs to adopt Threat Vulnerability Integration in improving the security conditions of the country.
Threat Vulnerability Integration involves the mapping of terrorist threats and capabilities both current and future against specific national assets and the vulnerabilities that could be explored by the threats to exploit the assets.
While government has expanded the number of security agencies – many with overlapping functions – the publicly available analysis of the threats shows that the risks are not mitigated.
1.3-CONSEQUENCES AND IMPACTS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA
The consequences of the Boko Haram are multifaceted and affected Nigeria and Nigerians in so many ways. It has led to the deaths of many people, destructions of properties worth billions of dollars and displacement of many people from the original place of residence. It has destroyed many families and institutions across the country. Boko Haram has committed serious acts of violence. It has killed an estimated 37,000 and displaced over 4.2 million in the wider Lake Chad region. The psychological impacts of the abductions and kidnapping, has a negative effect on our drive for productivity and national development.
A key component of Boko Haram’s ideology is hostility toward secular education, and it has gained notoriety for its repeated attacks on schools and universities, as well as teachers, administrators, and students, wreaking havoc on an already fragile educational system.

Boko Haram has killed an estimated 2,295 teachers, and over 19,000 teachers have been displaced by the conflict. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) estimates that more than 1,400 schools have been destroyed, damaged, or looted primarily in the northeast, and more than 600,000 children have lost access to education.
In addition to the abuses committed against female students and teachers as an immediate result of an attack on schools and/or while held in captivity, the suffering and impact does not end once they are rescued or escaped. Attacks on education create a ripple effect, setting in motion a range of negative impacts such as loss of education, early marriage, early pregnancy, and stigma associated with sexual violence and children born from rape, all of which can dramatically affect female students’ futures. These harms often exacerbate and are exacerbated by pre-existing forms of gender discrimination and harmful practices that negatively affect girls and women.
Poverty has been the single greatest obstacle to education in northeastern Nigeria, and parents’ ability to pay for school expenses has been further impeded by the conflict.
Many schools were also closed for significant periods due to insecurity, or because the school had been destroyed or seriously damaged during the attacks. Nigerian government forces and pro-government militia have also used schools for military purposes.
While this report documents numerous abuses that female students and teachers have suffered during an attack on their schools and/or as a direct consequence of such an attack, there are also numerous risks for teenage girls who are not in school, including early marriage, early pregnancy, and lost opportunities for personal autonomy, employment, and economic independence.
Many survivors are also reported as suffering from mental and physical health problems because of the abuses they have suffered.
1.4-WAY FORWARD-SOLUTIONS TO ENDING BOKO HARAM POVERTY,
Government needs to put in place a policy and programmed that will genuinely address poverty and underdevelopment.

It must constantly review and update all these policies and programmed to meet up with global best practices and be very impactful.
One of the most apparent ways in which Boko Haram can capitalize on poverty is by exploiting the lack of social safety net that characterizes impoverished countries.
UNEMPLOYMENT
Government needs to create more jobs, by establishing new industries or reviving moribund ones. The place of development of skills must be taken into consideration as part of the overall strategies for job creations.

WEALTH AND ECONOMIC INEQUALITY
In as much as government cannot forcefully take the wealth of the rich and give to the poor, it must be conscious to the level of reducing the increasing widening wealth and inequality gaps between the rich and the poor, deploying incentives of taxation, subsidies, and waivers.

HIGH COST OF GOVERNANCE
Government must strive to reduce or redress the high cost of governance in Nigeria which has become a very disturbing phenomenon of late. It must trim the bogus allowances and salaries of our public office holders and block loopholes that aided the leaking or wastages of public funds.

BUDGET DELAY AND MANIPULATIONS
Government must ensure that there is consequence for the manipulations of delay in the budgeting process, Ministries, department’s sand Agencies that failed or defend their budget late must be made to face penalties that range from suspension to termination of appointment. Strict timeframe must be set by all stakeholders to ensure that the budget cycle rhyme with national planning.

MASSIVE NATIONAL DEBT
Compounding Nigeria’s debt problem is its Nigeria’s significant contingent liabilities.

Government must ensure fiscal discipline, put in place economic environment that will promote and sustain foreign investment drive and prioritize national aspiration in line with the desired expenditures.
POPULATION EXPLOSION
Uncontrolled population explosions have the tendency to lead to a fragile state because of unemployment and scarce resources. Government needs to partner with stakeholders to ensure their participation as regards the need for family planning, child spacing and resource managements.
CORRUPTION
Corruption is an anti‐social attitude awarding improper privileges contrary to legal and moral norms and impairs the authorities’ capacity to secure the welfare of all citizens. Corruption is killing Nigeria and her economy. Government needs to boost its anticorruption campaigns and enforce stricter regulations such as death penalty for those found liable.
UNREGULATED MIGRATIONS
In as much as there are protocols supporting regional and global movements, there is need for respective government to put in place policy and laws to monitor and regulate unregulated population migration into the country or out of the country. Because this has the tendency to encourage the movement of terrorist into the country, without notice or with little resistance.
POROUS BORDERS
The security at Nigerian borders must be tighten up, couple with the deployment of satellite tracking technology to monitor, track and apprehend smugglers of goods and arms.
BOUNDARY DISPUTES
Federal government must ensure a proper boundary delineation to avoid cases of inters and intra state boundary disputes. Those who live along the border corridor have most things in common.

Not until these boundaries are finally delineated, we can’t have an end to the boundary clashes.
EXTREME POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS IDEALOGY
Extreme political and religious ideology has been responsible for the incidences of Boko Haram and other forms of terrorism.
Government must work with all relevant stakeholders to regulate the importation of radical foreign ideology or indoctrinations to the country. The Nigerian intelligence community should be more proactive in these aspects.
Prioritize support to build inclusive, tolerant, and resilient communities. Promoting, supporting, and protecting the role of communities to address the challenges of violent extremism is critical.
Empowering the role of women, engaging youth, and faith leaders, and creating safe spaces for communities to develop authentic and local solutions to the problem of violent extremism is essential.
FEUDALISMs

The life saving realized the damages they have done to the nation must undergo soul searching, have a rethink and patriotically worked towards repositioning the nation for renewal and greatness. The civil society organization must be proactive in helping the serve as check and balance the centrifugal and divisive tendencies of these selfish and self-serving elites.

 LACK OF MOTIVATION OF THE SECURITY AGENTS AND AGENCIES

The law enforcement agents and agencies must be empowered and well trained to meet up in containing the unfolding security challenges in the nation as well as repositioning to tackle terrorism and Boko Haram insurgency.

PROLIFERATION OF SECURITY AGENCIES

The number of security agencies available should be kept at minimal level yet highly motivated and structures to seamlessly work together and to efficiently fit into the overall security architecture of the nation, to achieve stability and security.
LACK OF EFFECTIVE INTELLIGENCE GATHERING STRATEGIES
Federal government must train and empower the intelligence community, to enable them to perform maximally and to boost their intelligence gathering initiatives across the country.
WEAK FAMILY STRUCTURE

Government needs to put in place policies and laws that will help to strengthen family values and bonding, without compromising the morality of the nation.
The national orientation agency along with other civil society groups must be empowered to be very proactive in achieving these nationalistic goals of building a patriotic, formidable, and good family with high moral standard and fidelity.

ETHNIC MILITIA AGITATAIONS

Government needs to address all manifestation of social injustices and impunity in the state. With these done, it will go a long way to starve off all forms of discontents that led to ethnic nationalism and branded agitation and militancy.

This will help to mitigate the fall out discontents and agitations, arising from the faulty foundation of the country. The issues of the indigene-settler syndrome must also be addressed as much as the issues of illiteracy.
ILLITERACY
Government needs to place priority on the development of education and national manpower, even as its reform and modernized the Almajirai systems. Government needs to build more educational institutions to empower the people with much needed skills and increased budgetary allocations to education as a way of boosting the sector.
POOR LEADERSHIP AND GOVERNANCE

The place of credible leadership in addressing the myriads of challenges facing the nation cannot be over emphasized. Government must ensure the emergence of a credible and trustworthy leadership instead of greedy and selfish leaders.

Here in lies the need to put in place and sustain a robust electoral system that will transparently promotes the emergence of leadership that reflect the choice of the people.
LACK OF ROLES FOR TRADITIONAL RULERS

Government must ensure that there is a constitutional role for the traditional rulers so as to enable them to perform optimally and assist in development of the nation.
The royal fathers play critical roles in the promotion of peace and unity and the security of their domain, hence the imperatives of their engagements.

The scourge of the Boko Haram insurgency is undermining national security and integration to the extent that it calls for urgent interventions, to arrest the lethal trends.

 

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The book is dedicated to all my passing off’’ mentees and mentor’s of chief Sunday Awoniyi the [Aro of Mopa ] Alhaji Maitama Sule, chief Gani Fawehinmi S.A.N,S.A.M.N. Alhaji Balarabe Musa, Chief Chuba Okadigbo the [Oyi of Oyi] and the innocent Nigerian’s citizen’s of youth and children, adult that are being killed by insurgency of Boko H